Pricing and dating guns
And I am, by the way, very much indebted to Mathison just on this basis of all of a sudden having a pilot.
In a separate line of development, EDA monitors were incorporated in polygraph machines by Leonarde Keeler.
The E-meter became “the principal material artifact” of Dianetics and Scientology from the 1960s onward.
In late 1954 the use of the E-meter was discontinued by Hubbard.
Such devices have been used as a research tool in many human studies, and as one of several components of the Leonarde Keeler's polygraph (lie detector) system, which has been widely criticized as ineffective or pseudoscientific by legal experts and psychologists.
Electrodermal activity (EDA) refers to the changing electrical charges observed on the surface of the skin.
Nevertheless, by 1972, more than 1500 articles on electrodermal activity (EDA) had been published in professional publications, and today EDA is regarded as a popular method for investigating human psychophysiological phenomena.
In accordance with a 1974 federal court order, the Church of Scientology asserts that the E-meter is intended for use only in church-sanctioned auditing sessions; it is not a curative or medical device.
The auditor gives the preclear a series of commands or questions while the preclear holds a pair of cylindrical electrodes ("cans") connected to the meter, and the auditor notes both the verbal response and the activity of the meter.As we long ago suspected, the intervention of a mechanical gadget between the auditor and the preclear had a tendency to depersonalize the session..." And here come E-Meters back into the picture.The HASI is, at this moment, building a new and better E-Meter than has ever been built before, under the trademarked name of Physio-galvanometer, or O-Meter.In 1969, Scientology was accepted as a religion by the Court of Appeal and declared that the E-meter was useful in “bona fide religious counseling.” District Court Judge Gesell, while denying medical validity to the device, returned the e-meter to the Church.All e-meters from this point forward had to be inscribed with a disclaimer that it was not for medical or scientific diagnoses, treatment or prevention of any disease.